CSS-Animations-when-scroll-down

scroll down animation

Animations

The animation property in CSS can be used to animate many other CSS properties such as color, background-color, height, or width.

In this demo i am going to show different types of animations when we scroll the page . First, we are using a image having width 350px and height 218px. When you scroll the page from top to bottom it will move with nice animation effect.

   <div id="page">
        <section class="page-section">
            <div class="container">
                <div class="content">
                    <div class="section-title text-left" data-animation="fadeInLeft">
                    <h2 class="title">Bounce Animation</h2>
                    </div>
                    <img class="img-responsive pull-left" src="http://www.techdezine.com/wp-content/uploads/2019/04/default.jpg" width="350" height="218" data-animation="bounce" />
                    <p>Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Curabitur pellentesque neque eget diam posuere porta. Quisque ut nulla at nunc lacinia. Proin adipiscing porta tellus, ut feugiat nibh adipiscing sit amet.</p>
                    <br />
                    <br />
                    <div class="section-title text-left" data-animation="fadeInLeft">
                     <h2 class="title">Pulse Animation</h2>
                    </div>
                    <img class="img-responsive pull-right" src="http://www.techdezine.com/wp-content/uploads/2019/04/default.jpg" width="350" height="218" data-animation="pulse" />
                   <p>Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Curabitur pellentesque neque eget diam posuere porta. Quisque ut nulla at nunc lacinia. Proin adipiscing porta tellus, ut feugiat nibh adipiscing sit amet.</p>
                    <br />
                    <div class="section-title text-left" data-animation="fadeInLeft">
                     <h2 class="title">Shake Animation</h2>
                    </div>
                    <img class="img-responsive pull-left" src="http://www.techdezine.com/wp-content/uploads/2019/04/default.jpg" width="350" height="218" data-animation="shake" />
                 <p>Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Curabitur pellentesque neque eget diam posuere porta. Quisque ut nulla at nunc lacinia. Proin adipiscing porta tellus, ut feugiat nibh adipiscing sit amet.</p>
                    <br />
                    <br />
                    <div class="section-title text-left" data-animation="fadeInLeft">
                     <h2 class="title">Tada Animation</h2>
                    </div>
                    <img class="img-responsive pull-right" src="http://www.techdezine.com/wp-content/uploads/2019/04/default.jpg" width="350" height="218" data-animation="tada" />
                <p>Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Curabitur pellentesque neque eget diam posuere porta. Quisque ut nulla at nunc lacinia. Proin adipiscing porta tellus, ut feugiat nibh adipiscing sit amet.</p>
                    <br />
                    <br />
                    <div class="section-title text-left" data-animation="fadeInLeft">
                     <h2 class="title">Swing Animation</h2>
                    </div>
                    <img class="img-responsive pull-left" src="http://www.techdezine.com/wp-content/uploads/2019/04/default.jpg" width="350" height="218" data-animation="swing" />
                    <p>Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Curabitur pellentesque neque eget diam posuere porta. Quisque ut nulla at nunc lacinia. Proin adipiscing porta tellus, ut feugiat nibh adipiscing sit amet.</p>
                    <br />
                    <br />
                    <div class="section-title text-left" data-animation="fadeInLeft">
                     <h2 class="title">Wobble Animation</h2>
                    </div>
                    <img class="img-responsive pull-right" src="http://www.techdezine.com/wp-content/uploads/2019/04/default.jpg" width="350" height="218" data-animation="wobble" />
                     <p>Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Curabitur pellentesque neque eget diam posuere porta. Quisque ut nulla at nunc lacinia. Proin adipiscing porta tellus, ut feugiat nibh adipiscing sit amet.</p>
                    <br />
                    <br />
                    <div class="section-title text-left" data-animation="fadeInLeft">
                     <h2 class="title">Wiggle Animation</h2>
                    </div>
                    <img class="img-responsive pull-left" src="http://www.techdezine.com/wp-content/uploads/2019/04/default.jpg" width="350" height="218" data-animation="wiggle" />
                    <p>Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Curabitur pellentesque neque eget diam posuere porta. Quisque ut nulla at nunc lacinia. Proin adipiscing porta tellus, ut feugiat nibh adipiscing sit amet.</p>
                    <br />
                    <br />
                    <div class="section-title text-left" data-animation="fadeInLeft">
                     <h2 class="title">BounceIn Animation</h2>
                    </div>
                    <img class="img-responsive pull-right" src="http://www.techdezine.com/wp-content/uploads/2019/04/default.jpg" width="350" height="218" data-animation="bounceIn" />
                     <p>Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Curabitur pellentesque neque eget diam posuere porta. Quisque ut nulla at nunc lacinia. Proin adipiscing porta tellus, ut feugiat nibh adipiscing sit amet.</p>
                    <br />
                    <br />
                    <div class="section-title text-left" data-animation="fadeInLeft">
                     <h2 class="title">BounceInUp Animation</h2>
                    </div>
                    <img class="img-responsive pull-left" src="http://www.techdezine.com/wp-content/uploads/2019/04/default.jpg" width="350" height="218" data-animation="bounceInUp" />
                    <p>Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Curabitur pellentesque neque eget diam posuere porta. Quisque ut nulla at nunc lacinia. Proin adipiscing porta tellus, ut feugiat nibh adipiscing sit amet.</p>
                    <br />
                    <br />
                    <div class="section-title text-left" data-animation="fadeInLeft">
                    <h2 class="title">BounceInDown Animation</h2>
                    </div>
                    <img class="img-responsive pull-right" src="http://www.techdezine.com/wp-content/uploads/2019/04/default.jpg" width="350" height="218" data-animation="bounceInDown" />
                    <p>Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Curabitur pellentesque neque eget diam posuere porta. Quisque ut nulla at nunc lacinia. Proin adipiscing porta tellus, ut feugiat nibh adipiscing sit amet.</p>
                    <br />
                    <br />
                    <div class="section-title text-left" data-animation="fadeInLeft">
                     <h2 class="title">BounceInLeft Animation</h2>
                    </div>
                    <img class="img-responsive pull-left" src="http://www.techdezine.com/wp-content/uploads/2019/04/default.jpg" width="350" height="218" data-animation="bounceInLeft" />
                     <p>Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Curabitur pellentesque neque eget diam posuere porta. Quisque ut nulla at nunc lacinia. Proin adipiscing porta tellus, ut feugiat nibh adipiscing sit amet.</p>
                    <br />
                    <br />
                    <div class="section-title text-left" data-animation="fadeInLeft">
                  <h2 class="title">BounceInRight Animation</h2>
                    </div>
                    <img class="img-responsive pull-right" src="http://www.techdezine.com/wp-content/uploads/2019/04/default.jpg" width="350" height="218" data-animation="bounceInRight" />
                   <p>Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Curabitur pellentesque neque eget diam posuere porta. Quisque ut nulla at nunc lacinia. Proin adipiscing porta tellus, ut feugiat nibh adipiscing sit amet.</p>
                    <br />
                    <br />
                    <div class="section-title text-left" data-animation="fadeInLeft">
                <h2 class="title">FadeIn Animation</h2>
                    </div>
                    <img class="img-responsive pull-left" src="http://www.techdezine.com/wp-content/uploads/2019/04/default.jpg" width="350" height="218" data-animation="fadeIn" />
                     <p>Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Curabitur pellentesque neque eget diam posuere porta. Quisque ut nulla at nunc lacinia. Proin adipiscing porta tellus, ut feugiat nibh adipiscing sit amet.</p>
                    <br />
                    <br />
                    <div class="section-title text-left" data-animation="fadeInLeft">
                 <h2 class="title">FadeInUp Animation</h2>
                    </div>
                    <img class="img-responsive pull-right" src="http://www.techdezine.com/wp-content/uploads/2019/04/default.jpg" width="350" height="218" data-animation="fadeInUp" />
                     <p>Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Curabitur pellentesque neque eget diam posuere porta. Quisque ut nulla at nunc lacinia. Proin adipiscing porta tellus, ut feugiat nibh adipiscing sit amet.</p>
                    <br />
                    <br />
                    <div class="section-title text-left" data-animation="fadeInLeft">
                  <h2 class="title">FadeInDown Animation</h2>
                    </div>
                    <img class="img-responsive pull-left" src="http://www.techdezine.com/wp-content/uploads/2019/04/default.jpg" width="350" height="218" data-animation="fadeInDown" />
                     <p>Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Curabitur pellentesque neque eget diam posuere porta. Quisque ut nulla at nunc lacinia. Proin adipiscing porta tellus, ut feugiat nibh adipiscing sit amet.</p>
                    <br />
                    <br />
                    <div class="section-title text-left" data-animation="fadeInLeft">
               <h2 class="title">FadeInLeft Animation</h2>
                    </div>
                    <img class="img-responsive pull-right" src="http://www.techdezine.com/wp-content/uploads/2019/04/default.jpg" width="350" height="218" data-animation="fadeInLeft" />
                    <p>Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Curabitur pellentesque neque eget diam posuere porta. Quisque ut nulla at nunc lacinia. Proin adipiscing porta tellus, ut feugiat nibh adipiscing sit amet.</p>
                    <br />
                    <br />
                    <div class="section-title text-left" data-animation="fadeInLeft">
             <h2 class="title">FadeInRight Animation</h2>
                    </div>
                    <img class="img-responsive pull-left" src="http://www.techdezine.com/wp-content/uploads/2019/04/default.jpg" width="350" height="218" data-animation="fadeInRight" />
                      <p>Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Curabitur pellentesque neque eget diam posuere porta. Quisque ut nulla at nunc lacinia. Proin adipiscing porta tellus, ut feugiat nibh adipiscing sit amet.</p>
                    <br />
                    <br />
                    <div class="section-title text-left" data-animation="fadeInLeft">
                  <h2 class="title">FadeInUpBig Animation</h2>
                    </div>
                    <img class="img-responsive pull-right" src="http://www.techdezine.com/wp-content/uploads/2019/04/default.jpg" width="350" height="218" data-animation="fadeInUpBig" />
                       <p>Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Curabitur pellentesque neque eget diam posuere porta. Quisque ut nulla at nunc lacinia. Proin adipiscing porta tellus, ut feugiat nibh adipiscing sit amet.</p>
                    <br />
                    <br />
                    <div class="section-title text-left" data-animation="fadeInLeft">
                <h2 class="title">FadeInDownBig Animation</h2>
                    </div>
                    <img class="img-responsive pull-left" src="http://www.techdezine.com/wp-content/uploads/2019/04/default.jpg" width="350" height="218" data-animation="fadeInDownBig" />
                     <p>Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Curabitur pellentesque neque eget diam posuere porta. Quisque ut nulla at nunc lacinia. Proin adipiscing porta tellus, ut feugiat nibh adipiscing sit amet.</p>
                    <br />
                    <br />
                    <div class="section-title text-left" data-animation="fadeInLeft">
               <h2 class="title">FadeInLeftBig Animation</h2>
                    </div>
                    <img class="img-responsive pull-right" src="http://www.techdezine.com/wp-content/uploads/2019/04/default.jpg" width="350" height="218" data-animation="fadeInLeftBig" />
                     <p>Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Curabitur pellentesque neque eget diam posuere porta. Quisque ut nulla at nunc lacinia. Proin adipiscing porta tellus, ut feugiat nibh adipiscing sit amet.</p>
                    <br />
                    <br />
                    <div class="section-title text-left" data-animation="fadeInLeft">
                  <h2 class="title">FadeInRightBig Animation</h2>
                    </div>
                    <img class="img-responsive pull-left" src="http://www.techdezine.com/wp-content/uploads/2019/04/default.jpg" width="350" height="218" data-animation="fadeInRightBig" />
                   <p>Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Curabitur pellentesque neque eget diam posuere porta. Quisque ut nulla at nunc lacinia. Proin adipiscing porta tellus, ut feugiat nibh adipiscing sit amet.</p>
                    <br />
                    <br />
                    <div class="section-title text-left" data-animation="fadeInLeft">
                  <h2 class="title">RotateIn Animation</h2>
                    </div>
                    <img class="img-responsive pull-right" src="http://www.techdezine.com/wp-content/uploads/2019/04/default.jpg" width="350" height="218" data-animation="rotateIn" />
                   <p>Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Curabitur pellentesque neque eget diam posuere porta. Quisque ut nulla at nunc lacinia. Proin adipiscing porta tellus, ut feugiat nibh adipiscing sit amet.</p>
                    <br />
                    <br />
                    <div class="section-title text-left" data-animation="fadeInLeft">
                    <h2 class="title">RotateInUpLeft Animation</h2>
                    </div>
                    <img class="img-responsive pull-left" src="http://www.techdezine.com/wp-content/uploads/2019/04/default.jpg" width="350" height="218" data-animation="rotateInUpLeft" />
                  <p>Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Curabitur pellentesque neque eget diam posuere porta. Quisque ut nulla at nunc lacinia. Proin adipiscing porta tellus, ut feugiat nibh adipiscing sit amet.</p>
                    <br />
                    <br />
                    <div class="section-title text-left" data-animation="fadeInLeft">
                  <h2 class="title">RotateInDownLeft Animation</h2>
                    </div>
                    <img class="img-responsive pull-right" src="http://www.techdezine.com/wp-content/uploads/2019/04/default.jpg" width="350" height="218" data-animation="rotateInDownLeft" />
                    <p>Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Curabitur pellentesque neque eget diam posuere porta. Quisque ut nulla at nunc lacinia. Proin adipiscing porta tellus, ut feugiat nibh adipiscing sit amet.</p>
                    <br />
                    <br />
                    <div class="section-title text-left" data-animation="fadeInLeft">
                  <h2 class="title">RotateInUpRight Animation</h2>
                    </div>
                    <img class="img-responsive pull-left" src="http://www.techdezine.com/wp-content/uploads/2019/04/default.jpg" width="350" height="218" data-animation="rotateInUpRight" />
                   <p>Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Curabitur pellentesque neque eget diam posuere porta. Quisque ut nulla at nunc lacinia. Proin adipiscing porta tellus, ut feugiat nibh adipiscing sit amet.</p>
                    <br />
                    <br />
                    <div class="section-title text-left" data-animation="fadeInLeft">
               <h2 class="title">RotateInDownRight Animation</h2>
                    </div>
                    <img class="img-responsive pull-right" src="http://www.techdezine.com/wp-content/uploads/2019/04/default.jpg" width="350" height="218" data-animation="rotateInDownRight" />
                  <p>Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Curabitur pellentesque neque eget diam posuere porta. Quisque ut nulla at nunc lacinia. Proin adipiscing porta tellus, ut feugiat nibh adipiscing sit amet.</p>
                    <br />
                    <br />
                </div>
            </div>
        </section>
  </div>

Bounce Animation

Bounce Animation effect is used to move the element quick up, back, or away from a surface after hitting it.

To animate an element, simply use data-animation="bounce" as given below.

 <img class="img-responsive pull-left" src="http://www.techdezine.com/wp-content/uploads/2019/04/default.jpg" width="350" height="218" data-animation="bounce" />

Pulse Animation

It Provides a single vibration or short burs to an element when we scroll the page.

To animate an element, simply use data-animation="pulse" as given below.

 <img class="img-responsive pull-right" src="http://www.techdezine.com/wp-content/uploads/2019/04/default.jpg" width="350" height="218" data-animation="pulse" />

Shake Animation

It provides to move (an object) up and down or from side to side for an element.

To animate an element, simply use data-animation="shake" as given below.

<img class="img-responsive pull-left" src="http://www.techdezine.com/wp-content/uploads/2019/04/default.jpg" width="350" height="218" data-animation="shake" />

Tada Animation

It provides to move an element from side to side.

To animate an element, simply use data-animation="tada" as given below.

<img class="img-responsive pull-right" src="http://www.techdezine.com/wp-content/uploads/2019/04/default.jpg" width="350" height="218" data-animation="tada" />

Swing Animation

The swing animation effect move or cause to move back and forth or from side to side while suspended or on an axis to an element.

To animate an element, simply use data-animation="swing" as given below.

<img class="img-responsive pull-left" src="http://www.techdezine.com/wp-content/uploads/2019/04/default.jpg" width="350" height="218" data-animation="swing" />

Wobble Animation

It provides to move (an object) up and down or from side to side for an element.

To animate an element, simply use data-animation="wobble" as given below.

<img class="img-responsive pull-right" src="http://www.techdezine.com/wp-content/uploads/2019/04/default.jpg" width="350" height="218" data-animation="wobble" />

Wiggle Animation

It provides to move or cause to move up and down or from side to side with small rapid movements.

To animate an element, simply use data-animation="wiggle" as given below.

<img class="img-responsive pull-left" src="http://www.techdezine.com/wp-content/uploads/2019/04/default.jpg" width="350" height="218" data-animation="wiggle" />

BounceIn Animation

Bounce Animation effect is used to move the element quick up, back, or away from a surface after hitting it.

To animate an element, simply use data-animation="bounceIn" as given below.

<img class="img-responsive pull-right" src="http://www.techdezine.com/wp-content/uploads/2019/04/default.jpg" width="350" height="218" data-animation="bounceIn" />

BounceInUp Animation

Bounce Animation effect is used to move the element from bottom to top of the surface.

To animate an element, simply use data-animation="bounceInUp" as given below.

<img class="img-responsive pull-left" src="http://www.techdezine.com/wp-content/uploads/2019/04/default.jpg" width="350" height="218" data-animation="bounceInUp" />

BounceInDown Animation

Bounce Animation effect is used to move the element from top to bottom of the surface.

To animate an element, simply use data-animation="bounceInDown" as given below.

<img class="img-responsive pull-right" src="http://www.techdezine.com/wp-content/uploads/2019/04/default.jpg" width="350" height="218" data-animation="bounceInDown" />

BounceInLeft Animation

Bounce Animation effect is used to move the element from left side of the surface.

To animate an element, simply use data-animation="bounceInLeft" as given below.

<img class="img-responsive pull-left" src="http://www.techdezine.com/wp-content/uploads/2019/04/default.jpg" width="350" height="218" data-animation="bounceInLeft" />

BounceInRight Animation

Bounce Animation effect is used to move the element from right side of the surface.

To animate an element, simply use data-animation="bounceInRight" as given below.

<img class="img-responsive pull-right" src="http://www.techdezine.com/wp-content/uploads/2019/04/default.jpg" width="350" height="218" data-animation="bounceInRight" />

FadeIn Animation

The image come or cause to come gradually into (or) out of view, (or) to merge into another shot.

To animate an element, simply use data-animation="fadeIn" as given below.

 <img class="img-responsive pull-left" src="http://www.techdezine.com/wp-content/uploads/2019/04/default.jpg" width="350" height="218" data-animation="fadeIn" />

FadeInUp Animation

The image come gradually from bottom to top.

To animate an element, simply use data-animation="fadeInUp" as given below.

<img class="img-responsive pull-right" src="http://www.techdezine.com/wp-content/uploads/2019/04/default.jpg" width="350" height="218" data-animation="fadeInUp" />

FadeInDown Animation

The image come gradually from top to bottom.

To animate an element, simply use data-animation="fadeInDown" as given below.

<img class="img-responsive pull-left" src="http://www.techdezine.com/wp-content/uploads/2019/04/default.jpg" width="350" height="218" data-animation="fadeInDown" />

FadeInLeft Animation

The image come gradually from left.

To animate an element, simply use data-animation="fadeInLeft" as given below.

<img class="img-responsive pull-right" src="http://www.techdezine.com/wp-content/uploads/2019/04/default.jpg" width="350" height="218" data-animation="fadeInLeft" />

FadeInRight Animation

The image come gradually from right.

To animate an element, simply use data-animation="fadeInRight" as given below.

<img class="img-responsive pull-left" src="http://www.techdezine.com/wp-content/uploads/2019/04/default.jpg" width="350" height="218" data-animation="fadeInRight" />

FadeInUpBig Animation

The image gradually move from bottom to top in the page.

To animate an element, simply use data-animation="fadeInUpBig" as given below.

 <img class="img-responsive pull-right" src="http://www.techdezine.com/wp-content/uploads/2019/04/default.jpg" width="350" height="218" data-animation="fadeInUpBig" />

FadeInDownBig Animation

The image gradually move from top to bottom in the page.

To animate an element, simply use data-animation="fadeInDownBig" as given below.

 <img class="img-responsive pull-left" src="http://www.techdezine.com/wp-content/uploads/2019/04/default.jpg" width="350" height="218" data-animation="fadeInDownBig" />

FadeInLeftBig Animation

The image gradually move from left.

To animate an element, simply use data-animation="fadeInLeftBig" as given below.

<img class="img-responsive pull-right" src="http://www.techdezine.com/wp-content/uploads/2019/04/default.jpg" width="350" height="218" data-animation="fadeInLeftBig" />

FadeInRightBig Animation

The image gradually move from right.

To animate an element, simply use data-animation="fadeInRightBig" as given below.

 <img class="img-responsive pull-left" src="http://www.techdezine.com/wp-content/uploads/2019/04/default.jpg" width="350" height="218" data-animation="fadeInRightBig" />

RotateIn Animation

It provides to move or cause to move in a circle round an axis or center.

To animate an element, simply use data-animation="rotateIn" as given below.

<img class="img-responsive pull-right" src="http://www.techdezine.com/wp-content/uploads/2019/04/default.jpg" width="350" height="218" data-animation="rotateIn" />

RotateInUpLeft Animation

The image will rotate from top to left in a circle round motion. (or) in anti clock direction.

To animate an element, simply use data-animation="rotateInUpLeft" as given below.

<img class="img-responsive pull-left" src="http://www.techdezine.com/wp-content/uploads/2019/04/default.jpg" width="350" height="218" data-animation="rotateInUpLeft" />

RotateInDownLeft Animation

The image will rotate from bottom to left in a circle round motion.

To animate an element, simply use data-animation="rotateInDownLeft" as given below.

 <img class="img-responsive pull-right" src="http://www.techdezine.com/wp-content/uploads/2019/04/default.jpg" width="350" height="218" data-animation="rotateInDownLeft" />

RotateInUpRight Animation

The image will rotate from top to right in a circle round motion. or in clock direction.

To animate an element, simply use data-animation="rotateInUpRight" as given below.

<img class="img-responsive pull-left" src="http://www.techdezine.com/wp-content/uploads/2019/04/default.jpg" width="350" height="218" data-animation="rotateInUpRight" />

RotateInDownRight Animation

The image will rotate from bottom to right in a circle round motion.

To animate an element, simply use data-animation="rotateInDownRight" as given below.

<img class="img-responsive pull-right" src="http://www.techdezine.com/wp-content/uploads/2019/04/default.jpg" width="350" height="218" data-animation="rotateInDownRight" />

Animate Once:

Adding this will make sure the item only animates once and will not reset when it leaves the view-port.

We are using java script

var appMaster = {
                   dataAnimations: function() {
                   $('[data-animation]').each(function() {
	var element = $(this);
	element.addClass('animated');
	element.appear(function() {
                   var delay = ( element.data('delay') ? element.data('delay') : 1 );
	if( delay > 1 ) element.css('animation-delay', delay + 'ms');				element.addClass( element.data('animation') );
	setTimeout(function() {
	element.addClass('visible');
	}, delay);	
                   });
	});
                    },
                    }; 
  $(document).ready(function() {
	appMaster.dataAnimations();
	});	

The animation property is not supported in Internet Explorer 9 and earlier versions.

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